Sunday, December 8, 2019

Action/Reaction in Miniature Wargaming (Part 3)

Playing Pieces

Rifle/Canister Range Stick

For the 54mm game the stick is 27 inches long and is divided into nine 3 inch sections, each representing 150 feet. For smaller scales the player could reduce this further but still needs  
to have 9 equally sized segments. 

For rifles and canister, the numbers indicate the number or lower which the player has to roll to score hits on the target. For infantry, skirmishers, and mounted infantry the player rolls 1 D10 for each piece on the firing line. For canister, the player rolls 9 D10s. 10s are treated as zeros.

Musket Range Stick

Troops, armed with notoriously inaccurate muskets, had to get close to the enemy to effectively engage them. Therefore, their range stick reflects that. The 1 inch segments from 6  - 1 are the effective ranges at 50 feet to 100 yards. Beyond the qoo yards up to 200 yards (the remaining 6 inches), they have to roll 1's to hit anything.

Casualty counters come in all kinds of shapes and designs. I have used Scrabble tiles with numbers written on the back and Sudoku tiles. I decided to make my own casualty counters Start with copyright free clock faces off the internet. Reduce or enlarge them to the size of a wooden poker chip. (The chips shown here came from a game I bought at a yard sale.) 

Print the clock face on label paper. 

Cut out two of the clock faces. 

Place one on the bottom piece of the counter. 

Put the other on a spare top piece, which will be the pattern to center the real top piece. 

Using a push pin (a thumb tack with a big head on it) to work a hole through the center of the clock face on the spare top piece until it comes through the bottom of the poker chip.

Remove the pin and put the spare poker chip on top of a blank chip, making sure the  chips align.

With the two aligned pieces together put the push pin through the original template into the bottom chip to mark the center of what will become the top part of the counter.

Cut a "V" shaped notch in the  chip without the clock face.

Place it on top of the poker chip with the other clock face on it and align the two.

Take a regular thumb tack and push it through the marked center of the top plate into the bottom piece to complete the construction of your new casualty counter.

Understand, some of the counters are not going to perfectly align but they do work, which it what really matters.

Smoke and fog markers. Since I do not have the means to create heavy card board numbered chits to use as markers, I again resorted to the pieces from yardsale games and manipulatives which I purchased at a used book store which also sells second hand school supplies for teachers.

I have used Sudoku tiles, preschool plastic numbers, the backs of Scrabble Junior tiles, and finally settled on miniature poker decks because they are moderate in size, and very visible on the game table. 

It required the acquisition of about four decks of cards from which I extracted all of the cards from Ace through "6." 

From there. I divided the cards evenly into two equally numbered decks. 

I labeled the one "Smoke."

"Fog" became the unlabeled deck.

The numbers indicate the thickness of the smoke and the fog, with the highest number being the densest obstruction and the Ace being the thinnest veil.

The both limit visibility and regular movement, and the extra die used in charges by the number on the card. For instance, the "3" reduces a movement of "9" to "6." When firing, The adjusted range on the rangs stick is reduced by "3."

It the visibility is higher than the allotted movement the piece moves only 1 inch because visibility is zero.

The difference between smoke and fog in the game is that smoke accumulates with each firing and fog dissipates over time. At the beginning of the game the player determines the fog's thickness,  should the scenario call for, by roll 1 D6 for each of the low spots on the field. The resulting number is the thickness of the fog. That is the number the player places on the field. At the beginning of each turn, the player rolls a D6 to determine if the fog thickness reduces by 1.

Everytime a regiment fires smoke accumulates, starting with and Ace. With each firing, it increases by 1 until it maxes out at 6. At the beginning of each turn, the player rolls a die to see if the smoke bank reduces by 1 or not.

The reduction of the fog and smoke indicates thinning out cause by breezes dissipating the smoke and the sun burning the fog off.


In previous versions of this game I utilized D20s, D12s, D10s, and D6s. Weile supervising the game at FAll-In I realized that having so many varieties of dice on the table complicated and actually slowed play. Consequently, I simplified the the playing system. The actual playing of the dice are detailed in the game  rules.

The dice reflect the uncertainty of reaction and response to combat situations.

The two colors of 6Ds are used in hand-to-hand resolution, reduction in movement for crossing fences, going up and down hills, destroying fences, and determining fog density.

They also determine reaction to artillery fire on targets and reaction to small arms fire on columns.

D10s resolve small arms and artillery fire, officer hits, rallies, stall marker and reaction marker removals, officer replacement, officers being able to see a problem and move to solve it, and reaction to incoming fire.

As a rules of thumb with this game. If there is a question about what can or cannot be done on the field, have a roll off instead of an argument.

Litko produces an excellent range of economical plastic markers like these, for miniature wargaming. Place these on thew field to announce a charge or to indicate that a unit is routed and either running or withdrawing.

Thes home made rout markers represent a unit in panic mode: Retreat, Withdraw, Prone. They are removed when the unit rallies.

These plastic poker chip sized markers came from a yard sale game which I looted for the parts. They are hit markers for officer, skirmishers, and artillery crews. Red: 1 hit. White: 2 hits.  Blue: 3 hits. the 4th hit removes the piece. Red, Whit, and Blue is easy for an American to remember.

These small sized markers, also yard sale salvaged, represent a stalled regiment (red) and a regiment in reaction (blue). They need to be removed by and officer at the beginning of the turn or the unit can only defend itself if attacked and that at a reduced status.

In hand-to-hand the attacker gets an extra die.

When firing, they have to roll a D6 halved to reduce their effectiveness.

Many of these items are available commercially but gamers, as a rule, often craft their own markers. It kind of is a hall mark of the hobby.

Again, thank you for reading this.  I always look forward to cordial, and informative comments and observations.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Action/Reaction in Miniature Wargaming (Part 2)

Officers have an important role in this system. The rank and file needs them to direct ordered firing, need them to prevent routs, withdrawals, and undesirable reactions to charges and collisions with other units. They are needed to provide a source of command (provided they see the situation) with a unit which has lost all of its officers. They may be mounted or dismounted. Mounted officers can cover a greater distance to get a unit under control than an officer on foot.

Being mounted, however deprived the officer of the cover afforded by stonewalls, fences, boulders, and tree stumps, because his body, from about the waist up would be above them. A lot of “gentlemen” receives nasty groin wounds because of shoulder height incoming rounds. Winfield Scott Hancock and James Kemper, at Gettysburg, in particular, come to mind.    Contrary to popular history sharpshooters did not selectively eliminate a lot of mounted commanders as did stray shot arching over the line. Civil War small arms projectile did not travel in flat trajectories.  They tended to climb the farther they got away from the weapons’ muzzles and then drop. Smoke could and did reduce the line of sight to zero. As a point of reference, I recommend watching the 1951 Red Badge of Courage with Audie Murphy and Bill Mauldin to get an excellent portrayal of a smokey field.

For this system every regiment should have at least three officers and no less than one. They represent the colonel, the lieutenant colonel, and the major. Once they are gone the player has to replace the last officer with the senior captain, which is accomplished by an even/odd die roll. If that fails, the “brigadier” (player) checks to see if there is another officer within distance who might have seen the last officer go down. That is resolved by an Even/Odd die roll. If the officer sees it, he goes to the regiment and takes over. His presence on the line will keep the regiment from being stalled and leaderless.

When a line comes under fire and suffer hits, all of the regimental;  officers with it are susceptible to injury because bullets do not have brains. They could hit whoever is in their paths. An Even/Odd roll determines whether the player has to roll to determine of the officer(s) gets injured. Officers can sustain four “hits” before being eliminated from play.

Besides rallying units, officers also make it possible to break a regiment into separate sections such as battalions/wings (1/2 of a regiment) or by divisions (two stands). Dividing a regiment makes maneuvering easier in crowded spaces or to keep a unit functional when divided by a fence or stonewall.

Infantry pieces consist of 48 rank and file. (The officers and file closers are assumed to be with them.) They can sustain 12 hits before getting removed from play. Therefore, each hit represents four casualties. A lot of Civil War shooting because of improper training, smoke, and other factors did not hit the targets. A lot of that depended upon how close the troops were in an unobstructed field. A regiment generates smoke every time it fires and that smoke often did not dissipate as quickly as it does in the movies.

Once a regiment loses a piece, it has to determine of it routs or not. If it fails the results of the die roll, the officer(s) will attempt to rally it. A die roll also resolves this issue.

Artillery crews consist of three crew pieces, each representing 12 enlisted men on the crew. If the player wants to introduce limbers, that is fine. One of the pieces will stay with the limber. Each field piece stands for one gun. At this stage of the games development I do not distinguish between rifles and smoothbores. As it evolves, I could differentiate between the two, but at this point I think it would interfere with playability. Once a crew loses a piece, it has to roll for a rout and the officer of the section of the battery captain can attempt to rally it.

Infantry and cavalry regiments must roll for rout when they incur casualties from by artillery, independent of small arms fire.

If the crew abandons the gun, they may attempt to spike it by an Even/Odd die roll.

Skirmisher serves as the eyes and ears of an advancing force in hostile territory. Each piece represents 4 “comrades in battle."Their job is to find the enemy before the line does and to snipe at officers. Unlike regular infantry, they get a deduction for cover in addition to any other cover on the field. Because they came from a unit, the regiment of origin suffers a “hit” for each skirmisher it dispatches.  They can return to the line and remove the “hits” as well. Often in a game, the players forget to recall them and they show up inconveniently behind an enemy formation.

Without skirmishers, a unit can accidentally walk into an unexpected confrontation much like what happened in the Cornfield at Antietam and at McPherson’s Woods at Gettysburg.

I have not dealt with cavalry in this game system yet, however that is pending.

As the title indicates, this is an Action/Reaction system. I do not stress over whether they were green or elite troops. Troops think on their feet, veteran and “green” alike. Civil War accounts are filled with men lying down without orders, like William French’s line at Antietam in the action along the Bloody Lane, or the lines battling it out in the Wilderness. Erich Maria Remarque in All Quiet on the Western Front, eloquently describes how the soldier developed a sixth sense – one that could detect the change in air pressure from an incoming shell, trained the eye to detect cover behind a mole hill, and deflate the body to make it mold into the earth. Generally, given the chance to take cover, men avoided standing up in the open to blaze away at one another. If there was cover, they took advantage of it with or without orders.  Fences had holes in them and men kneeling down behind them would also have them.

The next part of this series will include a preliminary description of the playing pieces, beyond the miniatures, needed to play this game to record casualties, place smoke and fog, announce charges, record deductions for movement, and reducing the effectiveness of fire, and other aspects of the game..

As always, I really appreciate constructive comments and suggestions. Thank you.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Action/Reaction in Miniature Wargaming (Part 1)

My grandson and I had a great time at Fall-In and anticipate running games next year. Alas, the photos did not turn out well, therefore they are not in this entry. Since then I have been rewriting, tweaking and testing the rules for Chaos, Confusion, and Casualties, my Civil War  rules set.

While the rules are designed for 54mm, they can be scaled down to other sizes. Scale and basing are up to the individual. I play with 54mm because that is the scale I prefer. I used that scale in my history high school classes because they were economical, and easier to see, and handle. I used then to teach tactics and command and control, in which the students had to write afteraction reports.
What I intend to do in the next several blogs is to introduce the rules, solicit suggestions on refining them and explain the logic behind why I adopted the rules to encourage others to generate their own systems.

I am a detail oriented individual, a firm believer that For want of a nail, a shoe was lost/ for want of a shoe, a horse was lost/ for want of a horse a battle was lost/ all for the want of a nail.” Ignoring the small stuff can create larger than life problems. For want of socks, blistered feet disabled men as much as bullets. I study battles from the ground up. I interpret battlefields the same way. Fog, smoke, rapidly undulating terrain, high humidity, and very faint breezes transformed bucolic farm fields into separate fields over which no general had control. That is what I wanted to simulate in a game. I believe to a degree, I have achieved that objective.

I also wanted to get minimize charts and make the outcomes of engagements far less predictable. Why is it, that in popular history, Confederates never deserted the field? That the Civil War was civil? That elite troops never reached a breaking point? That artillery projectiles always exploded? That generals really knew what was going on within their zones of control? I attribute Murphy’s Law (anything that can go wrong will at the most inconvenient time) as the basis of the concept behind this system.

Isaac Newton’s Third Law says that “For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.” With physics that is true but not so much for human interactions. There was a great cartoon from Carl Rose in 1942 picturing two GIs on a forward observation post in the Pacific. The first frame shows the one guy on the berm of the trench snapping off a round toward the unseen Japanese followed immediately by the second frame which depicts 13 artillery rounds passing low and horizontally over their trench. The fellow who started the mess calmly tells his mate, “Touchy, aren’t they?” How many big firefights started by a loose round on the perimeter? How many high school brawls from one remark? How many arguments over a trivial remark?

That is how this system operates. Action/reaction, unless an officer sees it and succeeds in stopping it. It also makes the players use the terrain, ground cover, smoke and/or fog to their advantage.

Basic Linear Tactics

Diagram 1 illustrates 5 stands (representing 500 men in two ranks) in line of battle. Their normal movement is 9 inches less any deductions for terrain, fog, and smoke.

 Diagram 1

Diagram 2 shows 4 stands (400 men in column of 4's) facing by the narrow end of the rectangle. Their normal rate of speed is 12 inches less deductions.

Changing from column into line can occur by turning the pieces 90 degrees to face right or left by the deduction of 1 movement point.

Going from column into line or line into column other than by changing facing takes all of the movement points because they require more intricate manoeuvres to execute and more exertion by the men into line. while the illustrations below have specific commands, the important thing to note it where the point of pivot company (the anchor) in the line changes and gives the commander flexibility in handling his/her regiment.

Note how the left of the line becomes the tail of the column and places the head of the column closest to the opponent's line.

Here the line faces to the rear and forms column in the opposite direction.

Column to the Right (or Left) Into Line allows the commander to quickly move his regiment to either flank to protect his front.

Column Forward Into Line allows the officer to reduce his front for regiments on his flanks to come one line.

     Column Front to Rear Into Line allows the commander to face a threat from the rear. Note the center stand (the front of the column) about faces and the other companies go on line to both flanks.

Front to Rear on the Left (or Right) Company is a left wheel to the rear. This changes front by 90 degrees. (For some reason I missed placing the 3rd Company in the new line.) It is the reverse of a Left (orRight) Wheel into Line. 

     Into Column on the Center Company. This places the front company closer to the enemy.

There are no movement points used in this maneuver when in column of fours.

A Right (or Left) Quarter Wheel takes hale of the line's movement points (5 inches) with no deductions.

In the game the player does not have to issue those specific commands but has to know how to change the formations to his/her advantage.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Chaos, Confusion, and Casualties: Resolving Hand-to-Hand

With Fall-In coming up in a few days I will not be able to complete this series yet. Therefore I decided to devote this entry to resolving Hand-to- Hand combat on battalion level of infantry to infantry. 

Scenario 1

1. The Confederates during the turn segment have announced a charge as indicated by the marker. The confederate player has rolled 2 D6s - one white (to indicate how much farther than 9 inches he can advance) and the other a black D6. (The even number indicates that the Rebs had delivered the Rebel Yell.

2. The Union troops have heard it, and there being no noise on the field to make it hard to discern, have decided to react to it  by rolling the special D12 and placing the blue marker behind the line. (The blue marker indicates the regiment has reacted and the officer has not tried to stop it.) The regiment, as indicated by the "W" will withdraw 3 inches as the Confederates advance.

3. The charge has fallen short and the Confederate officer has placed a red chit by the line to indicate that the line is disorganized and may only return fire if fired upon and then only half of the hits will count.

4. The movement phase has ended and the Union commander has ordered his regiment to fire. The disorganized Confederate regiment is returning fire. The range is "8" and the Federal officer has rolled one D10 for each of his men on line. "0" and any roll higher than "8" is a miss. Five of the dice indicate hits with one miss.

The Confederate officer rolls one D20 and one D6 to determine if the officer was hit during the fighting. The even number on the D6 means he has been hit but the "2" on the D20 indicates that it was too minor to count as a wound. His men have not returned fire.

Scenario 2

1. The Confederates are preparing to charge. The odd number on the black D6 means they are not giving the Rebel Yell. The red D6 means they will charge 11 inches and halt at the white D6.

The Federals know they are going to be charged because there is no intervening obstacle like smoke to block the Rebels from view. Therefore they roll the special D12 which results the regiment will fire in reaction.

2. The Union player has placed a blue marker behind the line indicating a reaction and has rolled a red D3 to show how much he will deduct from the range marker. The range is "6" less "3." The dice roll has only two numbers "3" or lower. The Confederates suffer two hits. (The deduction reflects snap shooting.)

The Confederate commander rolls a D6 and a D20. The even D6 notes he is hit. The "12" on the D20 means he has been hit twice and may only take one more hit before he is removed. The White poker chip indicates two hits.  

3. The Union commander rolls one blue D6 for each piece involved and arranges them in a line from highest to lowest. The Confederate rolls one white die for each piece and lines them up highest to lowest as shown above. 

W5/B3 = 1 Union hit. B3/W2 = 1 Confederate hit. W2/B2 = no hits. W2/3B1 = 3 Union hits.

4. This shows the actual contact. The Confederate Officer has gotten hit (RD6, even). D20 "10" means he has gotten hit once.
That is his third hit and he is removed.

5. The Union player, having suffered hits rolls three D6s. Two are even therefore he rolls 2 D20s - "16" and "17" which results in two officers getting hit three times and are removed. 

6. Both sides are disrupted by the assault. The Confederates for having reached their maximum distance and the Federals for losing more men and having to withdraw 3 inches. 

Thank you for reading this entry. It takes longer to explain how the action works than to actually play it on a game. As always, I encourage you to respond with questions, comments, and observations.

The next entry will include photographs from the Fall-In games.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Nuts and Bolts of Action and Reaction

Since I devoted the last entry to artillery, I thought I would start this one with a more in depth explanation of how I developed the different tokens used in the game.

Field artillery, both rifled and smoothbore, fired four types of projectiles: canister (red-4 per gun), case (green- 4 per gun), common shell (blue - 8 per gun), and shot (yellow - 16 per gun). canister is used at a maximum  of 27 inches (450 yards) against massed formations. Case, an explosive round filled with musket balls can be used from the muzzle of the gun (0 inches) to 105 inches (1750) yards because the fuses could be set to burst from .5 seconds to 5.5 seconds.

Gun generated a lot of smoke which is when when firing a second round without halting for a turn the player has to estimate the range for case, shot, and shell and roll a D3 deduction when firing canister through smoke.

To facilitate quicker die rolls, I suggest organizing the  players' dice before the game and that they keep the dice with them throughout the game.

The 9 D10s are for canister; 7 D10s for case, and 5 D10s for common shells. Referring to the blog  with  the firing and deduction charts will explain the others.

Infantry dice consist of 10 or more D10s to use when firing where each piece rolls 1 D10 and compares it to the range less deductions to score hits. 

The 2 D6s (red and white numbered 1-2) with the hand written labels. Use 1  to determine deductions for firing in reaction, ascending a hill, and advancing beyond a wall or fence which the unit has crossed and the other is added to movement when descending a hill.

The remaining D6s are used to decide the following:
When a unit suffers casualties, roll 1 D6 per officer with the regiment and 1 D20 per officer. "Even" on the D6 indicates the officer is hit and the number on the D20 determines how many wounds he received and whether he should be removed from the game.

Note: each player has a red and a blue D10 to rally troops and prevent undesirable reactions to small arms and artillery fire.

Poker chips make great hit markers. I use them for officer and artillery crews. Officers can sustain 3 hits, with the 3rd one being the last one. Red = 1, white = 2, blue = 3, green = 4. Artillery crews consist of 2 pieces, each standing for 5 men on the guns and the limber. They can sustain 5 hits prior to removal. Each pair of guns have 1 officer, a lieutenant and each battery has a captain.

Ten hits remove an infantry piece (50 men) and requires the regiment to roll the green reaction D6. The officer(s) each roll an non-red D10 and 1 red D10 to see if the regiment panics.  If the number of the red die is larger than the officer(s) die (dice) the regiment panics. When an artillery crew loses one piece, the player follows the same procedure.

This is an infantry line with a colonel, lieutenant colonel, and a major. The regiment has suffered 3 hits and rolled the big D12 to see how it would react, The "N" indicates nothing and the player has decided not to counter that by ordering it to react with the rolls of 3 non-red D10s against 1 red D10.

The player has rolled 3 D6s to see of the officers were hit. The left officer as indicated by the "10" on the D20 has gotten wounded once.

This regiment' having been hit by an artillery round and incurred 3 hits has rolled 3 D6s (for the officers) a green panic die (for the reaction to the artillery) and 3 non red and 1 red D10 to see if the reaction takes effect.

The even D6 with the "1" on the D20 means the officer was either not hit or just nicked. The red "8" on the D10 is higher than the other 3 dice, there for the regiment will retreat 9 inched  ("R" on green D6).

These homemade markers stand for "Retreat" - 9 inches; "Withdraw" - 3 inches; "Prone." The Yellow marker shows that it is a panic which has to be rallied by an officer.

Units in panic may not return fire or defend from an attack.  They are routed.

When in retreat, a regiment faces to the rear and moves 9 inches without terrain deductions. It will continue to retreat until rallied 

The officers have managed to rally the regiment at the end of the turn because one of the non-ref dice is higher than the red die and if it had not been higher, the matching number would have stopped the retreat.

Once a regiment has rallied the player puts a small red marker on the regiment which it cannot move during the next furn but it can defend and return fire.  The results of that fire require a minus D3 and the results get halved. 

I will describe hand to hand combat, charges and reaction to small arms fire in the next blog entry.

Thank you for reading this and as always I welcome your constructive questions and suggestions.  

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Chaos, Confusion, and Casualties - Artillery Fire

One of the hardest thing to do when developing a war game is to determine the effectiveness of artillery fire. From what I have been told, in most ACW battles, the artillery accounted for 5% to 10% of the casualties. In this entry I will break down the mechanics of using artillery in this rules set.

A Federal gun crew has zeroed in on a small Confederate infantry regiment of 200 men. The green disc indicates that the gun is loaded with spherical case - an explosive round filled with 72 .58 caliber musket balls.

The accuracy of the shot depends upon the roll of the dice as established in the firing chart on the previous blog entry. The artillerists have a clear line of sight with no obstructions and the round, with the fuse set is ready to fire.

The  D20 determines whether the round is short, long or on target. In this case, the "19" indicates that it has gone long 5 inches, according to the D6. Had it been on target ("3" - "18"), the player would have ignored the D6.

The D12 indicates with the "11" that it has burst on center as shown with the black circle on the white D6. The red D3 does not matter because the whit die did not show an "L" or an "R". Otherwise the round would have burst 1 inch in the direction indicated.

The small D6 marks where the projectile exploded, above and behind the officer, therefore he remains uninjured.

The crew fires a second case round as shown by the second green disc. Note the smoke at the muzzle. The gun recoils and is rolled back into the line and the gunner has  decided to fire fast rather then wait a turn to let the smoke clear. That decision will affect the piece's accuracy.

He has to estimate the range and roll a different group of dice to reflect the difficulty in hitting the target through the smoke. He has estimates the range at 30 inches.

The "12" on the D12 indicates a burst. The "S" on the green D6  shows that is has exploded short, 2 inches (white D6). The black dot on the white D6 is on target and the red D3 gets ignored.

With exploding rounds all "0"s and the high numbers (8s on D10) get set aside. The remaining three D10s are three hits for a loss of 15 men to the regiment as indicated by the Sudoku number.. The smaller D6 was left in the photo by mistake.

Upon measuring the shot the player discovers it has burst 2 inches short of 30 and above the Confederates. With a blast range of 2 inches, the line has come under fire. A "30" would also have put it just in front of the line.

The opposing player rolls a D20 to see if the officer got hit. 1 - 5 is a miss. 6-10 is 1 hit. 11-15 is 2 hits. 16 -20 the officer is removed. If he gets eliminated the regiment must follow the artillery reaction die unless the officer gets replaced, which I shall explain later. In this case the 5 saved the officer.

The green D6 is marked with 1 - "P" for prone. 1 - "N" for no reaction. 2 -"R"s for retreat and 2 "W"s for withdraw. In this case the regiment will go prone and stay that way unless the officer rallies them. 
The officer rolls a red and a blue D10. The red represents the men and the blue the officer. The higher number settles the matter. In this case the men will not go prone and the green D6 gets removed.

The following entries will concern infantry reaction fire, charges and hand to hand combat, panics, officer recovery and other miscellaneous topics.

I would appreciate any constructive comments.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Chaos, Confusion, and Casualties - Movement, Firing, Formations

Ranges, Movement, and Firing
This entry contains charts for firing and movement and illustrations of three basic formations. The details of how to conduct initial fire artillery and subsequent firing without ceasefires will be in the following blog.
The Measuring Stick 
The measuring stick is used for small arms and canister fire.
Each 3 inch section represents 150 feet.
When firing, the player places the “9” at the shooting piece and the opposite end at the target. The number at the target is the range to the target without deductions.
Take the deductions for smoke and intervening cover between the shooter and the target and subtract that number from the original range. The resulting number is the number or lower which each piece in the firing line must roll on D10s to score hits.
For instance: The target is at number “5”. The target is behind a rail fence which has a deduction of  “1”. The shooter deducts that”1” from the “5” and therefore must roll a “4” or lower to score a hit. The shooter has 5 pieces on line and rolls 5 D10s. Each die with a 4 or lower scores a hit.
10s are automatic misses.
Deductions on Measuring Stick
  -1 Trees, fences, tall grass, stumps, rocks, downhill/ uphill, smoke/side,
  skirmishers.dismounted cavalry/     
      -D3 prone target, stone wall, trenches, reaction fire (None for ordered  

      +D3 prone shooter, shooter behind cover (Only with ordered firing.)

      Deductions/additions are cumulative.

      First Fire/Artillery: SB D20 short:1 -2 Long: 19-20 On target: 3-18

      Rifle D20 short: 1  Long: 20 On target: 2-19

      Overshoot/Short: D6

      Burst D12  Union: 1-2 dud  Confederate: 1-3 dud

      Burst radius forward 2 in.

      Solid Shot/Bolt: D6: even bounces 2 in. 1D6 for non bounce/

      2 D6 for bounce     Odd # are hits   

      Shell 5 D10 Remove all “0” and the highest number. Remaining die are

      Case 7 D10 – same as above

      Canister Use Firing Stick (deductions for smoke and reaction fire apply

      After first fire. Roll 9 D10 for measured distance. Any number equal to or

      Less than the number on the stick is a hit.

Infantry a. line of battle           9 in.     Charge: + 1 D6     + deductions
                b. in column of 4’s  12 in.     Charge: + 1 D10   + deductions
Skirmishers 12 in. (No deductions)
Dismounted Cavalry 12 in. (No deductions)
Artillerymen 9 in. (No deductions)
Mounted Cavalry/Officers a. in line 26 in. Charge + 1 D12  + deductions
                          b. in column/officer   36in.  Charge + D20     + deductions 
Limbered Artillery 26 in.  Charge + D12  + deductions
To Unlimber/Unlimber/Fix Prolonge 14 in. movement 
Into/From Battery 12 in. movement
Unlimbered Artillery – By Hand 1 in.  By Prolonge 7 in.
Deductions: Uphill – D3  Down hill +D3 Over Fence -2 D3 move balance of inches.  Over Works/Stonewalls  -D6 –D3 move balance of inches.
Woods, stumps, boulders -1 in.
Destroy rail fences/abatis  D10 roll off. Uses all movement.
Change of Facing – 1 in./90 degree
Quarter Wheel/Line to Column– entire movement (no deductions)
    Line of Battle

    Column of 4s

    Double Column of 4s